Biome Tundra

The average winter temperature is 34 °C (29.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 3 °C to 12 °C (37 °F to 52 °F). Arctic tundra plants have a short growing season of around 50 to 60 days. However, during this period there are almost 24 hours of daylight and plant growth is rapid. The annual precipitation of the arctic tundra is low (15 to 25 cm or 6 to 10 inches) with little annual precipitation. precipitation variation. And as in boreal forests, there is little evaporation due to low temperatures.

Plants in the arctic tundra are normally low to the floor and consist of low shrubs, grasses, lichens, and small flowering plants. There is low species diversity, low net primary productivity, and occasional aboveground biomass.

Arctic tundra floors can remain in a permanently frozen state known as permafrost. Permafrost makes it difficult for roots to penetrate deep into the soil and slows the decomposition of organic matter, which inhibits the discharge of nutrients from organic matter. Melting permafrost in the short summer provides water for a productivity boost while temperatures and long days allow.

During the growing season, the arctic tundra floor can be completely covered with plants or lichens.

Dominant wildlife: some resident birds and mammals that can survive the harsh conditions; shorebirds, migratory waterfowl, musk ox, lemmings and other small rodents, Arctic foxes, and caribou.

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